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#4306733 - 10/27/16 09:56 AM Re: SA-6 Gainful [Re: Hpasp]  
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Originally Posted By: Hpasp

I have never seen this date as confirmed (some years ago that date was 2016 yep) . It is known that life time of missiles is going to end, so they could be replaced with Aspide missiles (and most probably modified CW illuminator). There is no political will to order a new capable system, it is sufficient to look at what remained from our army itself, namely air force and PVO.

By the way, the whole article is a ton of #%&*$#, do not bother with reading :-)

Inline advert (2nd and 3rd post)

#4336850 - 02/13/17 12:16 PM Re: SA-6 Gainful [Re: wasserfall]  
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1982 AGM-78 Stadart ARM

#4337229 - 02/14/17 11:24 AM Re: SA-6 Gainful [Re: wasserfall]  
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Free SAM Simulator, "Realistic to the Switch"

(U-2 over Sverdlovsk, B-52's over Hanoi, F-4 Phantoms over the Sinai, F-16's and the F-117A Stealth bomber over the Balkans.)
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Book from the author - Soviet Nuclear Weapons in Hungary 1961-1991
https://sites.google.com/view/nuclear-weapons-in-hungary/

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#4341388 - 03/01/17 10:12 PM Re: SA-6 Gainful [Re: wasserfall]  
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A tank-transporter hauls a radar Straight Flush seized from the Libyans at Wadi Doum. Pierre-Alain Antoine collection

[Linked Image]

#4342751 - 03/08/17 11:46 AM Re: SA-6 Gainful [Re: Hpasp]  
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Originally Posted by Hpasp

.........The second AGM hit the SURN.
http://www.nato.int/video/990416c.mpg
[Linked Image]

Zoran Viriyevich reserve soldier died instantly...
... he was buried on the 16th of April at Kragujevac. He was 31 years old...




IT is strange that he didn't escape, after the diesel van was destroyed....

#4453049 - 12/12/18 08:07 PM Re: SA-6 Gainful [Re: wasserfall]  
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[Linked Image]

Attached Files са-6.jpg
#4454372 - 12/22/18 04:08 PM Re: SA-6 Gainful [Re: piston79]  
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Originally Posted by piston79
[Linked Image]

Nice thumbsup

#4471317 - 04/20/19 01:58 PM Re: SA-6 Gainful [Re: Hpasp]  
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Originally Posted by Hpasp
The 310.srp PVO was formed during 1982 in Kraguljevac, Yugoslavia.
Just before the OAF 1999 break out, the 4 KUB battery were redistributed.

1st battery was sent to defend the Sjenica AFB, some 100km SW of Kraguljevac.
4 MiG-21 fighter were hidden at this reserve base.

3rd battery was sent to defend the Ponikve AFB, some 100km W of Kraguljevac.
2 MiG-29 and 2 MiG-21 fighter were hidden at this reserve base.

At Kraguljevac, only the 2nd, and the 4th KUB battery were left.

At the 9th day of the war, the regiment was ordered leave Kraguljevac and take new position at 60~70km west of Belgrade.

14th of April, the 310/4.srp PVO KUB was discovered by NATO air forces, and were attacked by two AGM-130 missiles.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/AGM-130

The first AGM missile hit the Diesel Electric Transformer cabin.
http://www.nato.int/video/990416b.mpg
The operator is standing beside the cabin (probable smoking), he survived the explosion.
[Linked Image]

The second AGM hit the SURN.
http://www.nato.int/video/990416c.mpg
[Linked Image]

Zoran Viriyevich reserve soldier died instantly...
... he was buried on the 16th of April at Kragujevac. He was 31 years old...

[Linked Image]


[Linked Image]

Attached Files sa6 zoran.jpg
#4471333 - 04/20/19 07:18 PM Re: SA-6 Gainful [Re: piston79]  
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Originally Posted by piston79
Originally Posted by Hpasp
The 310.srp PVO was formed during 1982 in Kraguljevac, Yugoslavia.
Just before the OAF 1999 break out, the 4 KUB battery were redistributed.

1st battery was sent to defend the Sjenica AFB, some 100km SW of Kraguljevac.
4 MiG-21 fighter were hidden at this reserve base.

3rd battery was sent to defend the Ponikve AFB, some 100km W of Kraguljevac.
2 MiG-29 and 2 MiG-21 fighter were hidden at this reserve base.

At Kraguljevac, only the 2nd, and the 4th KUB battery were left.

At the 9th day of the war, the regiment was ordered leave Kraguljevac and take new position at 60~70km west of Belgrade.

14th of April, the 310/4.srp PVO KUB was discovered by NATO air forces, and were attacked by two AGM-130 missiles.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/AGM-130

The first AGM missile hit the Diesel Electric Transformer cabin.
http://www.nato.int/video/990416b.mpg
The operator is standing beside the cabin (probable smoking), he survived the explosion.
[Linked Image]

The second AGM hit the SURN.
http://www.nato.int/video/990416c.mpg
[Linked Image]

Zoran Viriyevich reserve soldier died instantly...
... he was buried on the 16th of April at Kragujevac. He was 31 years old...

[Linked Image]


[Linked Image]

:-(

#4500325 - 12/14/19 04:39 PM Re: SA-6 Gainful [Re: wasserfall]  
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Kub operator Online content
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Hello to everyone!
I was invited to this forum by @piston79, with whom I have been writing on MyCityMilitary forum.
I was a Kub operator in the former Yugoslav Army (VJ), and served as a Commander of SPL 2P25M1 (Self propelled launcher) in the Missile Battery and later as a Commander of radar station P-15M Flat Face in the Fire Command Battery of the Kub regiment. Also been active in the 1999. war, mostly as a Commander of P-15M and also as a Commander of SPL (to substitute for one of my colleagues)....
I am open for discussion on the Kub matter, and on the war experiences to the limit of my knowledge, and with respect to some informations that cannot be told at this time....

Last edited by Kub operator; 12/14/19 04:40 PM.
#4500334 - 12/14/19 05:45 PM Re: SA-6 Gainful [Re: Kub operator]  
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Originally Posted by Kub operator
Hello to everyone!
I was invited to this forum by @piston79, with whom I have been writing on MyCityMilitary forum.
I was a Kub operator in the former Yugoslav Army (VJ), and served as a Commander of SPL 2P25M1 (Self propelled launcher) in the Missile Battery and later as a Commander of radar station P-15M Flat Face in the Fire Command Battery of the Kub regiment. Also been active in the 1999. war, mostly as a Commander of P-15M and also as a Commander of SPL (to substitute for one of my colleagues)....
I am open for discussion on the Kub matter, and on the war experiences to the limit of my knowledge, and with respect to some informations that cannot be told at this time....



Welcome!

Is it OK to put the KUB panels explanation?

#4500337 - 12/14/19 06:14 PM Re: SA-6 Gainful [Re: wasserfall]  
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@piston79

How do I post images from my computer? This is the best way to do it, together with the text....

#4500340 - 12/14/19 06:20 PM Re: SA-6 Gainful [Re: Kub operator]  
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Originally Posted by Kub operator
@piston79

How do I post images from my computer? This is the best way to do it, together with the text....


True the Attach manager, I believe... In full editor mode

#4500342 - 12/14/19 06:37 PM Re: SA-6 Gainful [Re: wasserfall]  
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Kub operator Online content
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Ok, let me try now. Please understand that I haven`t been active for about 19 years and some memories faded.
Also, maybe some explanations could have been more precise in english language, but I tried my best.

RStON (SURN) 1S91M2 - The heart of the 2K12 Kub missile system

*Radar Station Commander Workplace
From left to right we can see velocity and height indicators of the chosen target.
Below those two indicators, we can see green lamps which marks SPL-s (Self Propelled Launchers) and they are marked above with roman numbers (I – IV).
Below these green lamps, there are switches “TARGET”, which are switched on by Commander when he allocates the target to one, or more, SPL-s.
Below the “TARGET” allocation switches, there are green lamps (Ready Lights) “READINESS”, that are turned on when SPL send the information to SURN that one, or more missiles are ready to be launched. When the missiles are ready to be launched, apart from green lamp “READINESS” for SPL no. II (on our picture), one/two/three red missile lamps will be turned on.
On the bottom of the Commander Workplace, there are red round launch buttons (Pusk) “LAUNCH”. On our picture, when the green lamp “READINESS” for SPL no. II is turned on, followed by turning on of one/two/three read missile lamps, Commander will press the “LAUNCH” button below SPL no. II, and launch the first missile. Before that, the guidance radar operator will establish automatic target tracking and illumination.
Which missile will be launched first is determined within SPL through AKR – Analogue Command Calculator and in the principle the missiles are launched from right to left, when observed standing in front of the SPL and the missiles

*Target Acquisition Radar Operator Workplace (TAR Operator)
We can see round panoramic IKO indicator with marked range zones of 20, 40 and 60 km. The azimuth marks are located on azimuth counter aroun IKO indicator.
The thicker yellow line is a marker and it is used by the TAR Operator, following the order from station Commander, to acquire the target by using the range and azimuth wheels, and thus switching the target onto the smaller and more precise ITC indicator.
The thinner yellow line is the mark of the circular marker which rotates around the IKO indicator and outlines the target marks, ground reflections and so on…..
On the smaller ITC indicator, target mark appears and more precise target azimuth and range parameters are determined, and target mark also appears in the smallest IPP indicator on the top, in the lower or upper beam diagram of the TAR, thus indicating the elevation angle of the target.
In that moment, guidance radar antenna as well as missile launchers on SPL-s are turned and guided towards the target position. SPL-s are receiving commands “TARGET” and “T.K” (Precise coordinates).
TAR Operator by using the control stick, is directing the guidance radar antenna towards target in azimuth, range and indication of elevation angle, on his ITC indicator, and when target appears in the guidance gates, he delivers the target to guidance radar for capture and automatic tracking.
Then, TAR Operator can, after receiving station Commanders orders, acquire another target on the IKO indicator as described earlier and switch it to his ITC indicator and direct the SPL-s towards a different target. In this way, the station crew are reducing the time for transfer of the fire to another target.

*Guidance radar Operator Workplace
When the TAR Operator delivers the target to guidance radar for automatic tracking, he has already directed the guidance radar antenna towards the target in azimuth and range and indication of target elevation.
On the left we can see “Antenna Guidance Indicator” (orange colored) which is used for Guidance radar Operator to capture the target in azimuth and especially in elevation, by using azimuth and elevation wheels, and establish automatic target tracking with guidance antenna.
When the target is captured and automatic tracking is established, Guidance radar Operator is switching the Illumination transmitter on and reports to station Commander who will launch the missile upon the turning on of the missile read lamps.
On the right we can see “Range Indicator” (green colored) which is used for target tracking in two modes: up to 60 km, when amplitude of target, negative amplitude of strobe and precise amplitude of target illumination is showed, and in 2 km mode when only the precise amplitude of target illumination is showed as well as the target position in the middle.
Amplitude of the missile is shown in the last phase of the missile guidance. When the missile amplitude reaches the target illumination amplitude and passes through it, the target should be hit. Further evaluation and observation of results of shooting can be achieved by checking the target height (should be decreasing) and speed (should be decreasing)….

PS. Sorry for the small pictures. But if You save them on your computer, they can be enlarged so you can see the switches, lamps, indicators, launch buttons and other.....






Attached Files IKO i ITC krupnije - Copy - Copy.jpgKonzole nišanskog radara.jpg
Last edited by Kub operator; 12/14/19 06:42 PM.
#4500344 - 12/14/19 07:08 PM Re: SA-6 Gainful [Re: wasserfall]  
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We would appreciate some marks on the photo

#4500406 - 12/15/19 12:14 PM Re: SA-6 Gainful [Re: Kub operator]  
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Originally Posted by Kub operator
Hello to everyone!
I was invited to this forum by @piston79, with whom I have been writing on MyCityMilitary forum.
I was a Kub operator in the former Yugoslav Army (VJ), and served as a Commander of SPL 2P25M1 (Self propelled launcher) in the Missile Battery and later as a Commander of radar station P-15M Flat Face in the Fire Command Battery of the Kub regiment. Also been active in the 1999. war, mostly as a Commander of P-15M and also as a Commander of SPL (to substitute for one of my colleagues)....
I am open for discussion on the Kub matter, and on the war experiences to the limit of my knowledge, and with respect to some informations that cannot be told at this time....


Welcome Kub operator!
Please share your experiences! with regard to opsec of course..

#4500427 - 12/15/19 06:13 PM Re: SA-6 Gainful [Re: wasserfall]  
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Thank you Muggs! smile

Well, from the very first night of Operation Allied Force 24/03/99, it was clear to us, that our problem would be acquiring and capturing the target without being hit by anti-radiation missiles. So, the very first step, acquire and capture of the target was the most dangerous one. So, we needed to find the way to acquire and capture the target without the use of target aquisition radar 1S11M2 (TAR).
Some missile batteries where hit in the first few nights in the process of finding targets by TAR, without being able to capture target and launch missiles.
The first thing was obviously to work through semi-automatic fire control system K-1M Krab, but the problem was in jamming of the telecode connections. Then we tried by connecting by wire, but then there was a problem of not being able to connect more than 1-2 missile batteries at the time, and the data flow was slow by wire, and we needed to have Fire Control Batterie and Missile batteries closer together.
Even so, we managed to "pull" 17 shootings via K-1M fire control system. But it just was not enough.
By the middle of April 1999. NATO planes started more often to attack by daytime in all of Serbia and Montenegro (former Federal Republic of Yugoslavia) especcialy over Serbian province of Kosovo.
That tactical move of NATO, enabled Kub missile batteries to start acquiring the target via TOV (televison optical kamera). Then, the total number of shootings and launches started to increase.
From the middle of April to the end of the war, first week of June, Kub missile bateries performed 16 shootings in TV mode and 10 shootings in combined mode.
TV mode means that the target was passively acquired by TOV and the missiles were launched with only illumination radar-transmitter turned on during the missile flight, and the target was tracked manually by the TOV control stick. No monopulse guidance radar transmitter emittion at all....while TAR was not even pulled up entirely.
Combined mode means that the target was passively acquired by TOV, but the guidance monopulse radar transmitter was turned on for a very short time to determine the distance to the target. Then it was turned of, and missile was launched with only illumination radar transmitter turned on during the missile flight, and the target was tracked manually as in TV mode...

In that way, Kub missile batteries managed to shoot 46 times with 70 missiles.
17 times in K-1M mode, 16 times in TV mode, 10 times in combined mode and 3 times autonomously (through full target acquisition, capture and guidance procedure as "by the book")...

This is to start.....If this is interesting to you all. we can continue with your questions, which I will answer to the very limit of my knowledge and with respect of some delicate information still not for public.....

Last edited by Kub operator; 12/15/19 07:35 PM.
#4500718 - 12/17/19 06:22 PM Re: SA-6 Gainful [Re: wasserfall]  
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I can't see any difference between TV mode and Combined mode....

#4500734 - 12/17/19 08:08 PM Re: SA-6 Gainful [Re: piston79]  
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Originally Posted by piston79
I can't see any difference between TV mode and Combined mode....


TV mode means that the target was passively acquired by TOV and the missiles were launched with only illumination radar-transmitter turned on during the missile flight, and the target was tracked manually by the TOV control stick. No monopulse guidance radar transmitter emittion at all....while TAR was not even pulled up entirely.
Combined mode means that the target was passively acquired by TOV, but the guidance monopulse radar transmitter was turned on for a very short time to determine the distance to the target. Then it was turned of, and missile was launched with only illumination radar transmitter turned on during the missile flight, and the target was tracked manually as in TV mode...


So, in TV mode, acquiring the target is done passively by using the TOV and the Control stick in the SURN cabine. When the target is acquired with the TOV, command "Mode II" (РЕЖИМ II) is turned on and the command "ЗАХВАТ У ВАЗДУХУ" (missile will acquire the target AFTER the launch) is formed in SPL-s (self propelled launcher) AKR (analogue command calculator) and transfered to the missile.
In the missile`s seeker a command "ЗАБРАНА ЗАХВАТА" (lock on ban - no lock on, on the launcher). In the SPL- launching block, the command for "blocking the launch" (which would normally be active) is disabled. That enables the launching of the missile, but only after the missile seeker signal, and not from the signal form launching block of the SPL, because the missile is reporting to the launching block that it acquired the target and that it is automaticaly tracking it.
From SPL, a command is sent to guidance and tracking radar SURN "ГОТОВОСТ" (Readiness for launch), no matter that the missile seeker did not acquire the target.
Then the missile is launched, illumination transmitter is on and it is illuminating the target and tail antena of the missile. Target is tracked with TOV by using the Control stick. The signals from CW illumination transmitter is reflected of the target and received in the GSN of the missile thus forming the commands for semi active radar self-guidance. The missile seeker will begin acquiring the target 4,5 seconds after it is launched by removing the command "ЗАБРАНА ЗАХВАТА" (lock on ban - no lock on, on the launcher). The difference in the reference signal received by the missile tail antenna, and then reflected of the target and received by the GSN, also measures the target speed and the speed of convergence.

This metod is usually used against low flying aircraft and the tactics include launching of several missiles.
But, we used it against aircraft flying at all altitudes and the illumination radar was usually turned on 2-3 seconds AFTER the missile launch to make the radiation time as short as possible.

In Combined mode, since the monopulse target tracking radar transmitter was turned on and determined the range of the target, the missile has acquired the target on the SPL (launcher). Then it is launched after the launching block of the SPL sent to SURN the command "READINESS", after receiving the information from the missile seeker that is is tracking the target.
Then, when the missile is launched, SURN operators turn monopulse target tracking radar of by using the switch "EKV" (equivalent) and continue to track the target by TOV. Illumination radar is turned on all of this time.....

So in Combined mode we have monopulse target tracking radar transmitter turned on for a few seconds and longer time of CW illuminator transmitter being turned on then in TV mode....

I hope I have explained this well in English language.....

#4500751 - 12/17/19 10:27 PM Re: SA-6 Gainful [Re: wasserfall]  
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Well, I see.... I thought the missile is command guided in the beginning...
Also I was a bit confused about the fact that SURN is transmitting not only in monopulse mode, but also in CW mode.... How the monopulse angle tracking is achieved with such antena (1S31M SN)?

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