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#3862176 - 11/13/13 10:16 PM Air to AIr Brevity Word Communication  
Joined: Dec 2012
Posts: 63
Gigolety Offline
Junior Member
Gigolety  Offline
Junior Member

Joined: Dec 2012
Posts: 63
Goodmorning community,

I recovered a guide I saw a couple of years ago but I could not print and now I think I will do it.

It is a great guide made by Graham "Minstrel" Piper memember of the 185th Falcon virtual squadron.

It is in a Word document but I don't know how to upload so I will copy and paste. May be you can find on a search engine just made a research otherwise copy this into Word or a text editor:



Commanding Officer: Tracer Executive Officer: PJC

185th IN-FLIGHT COMMUNICATIONS PART TWO –
AIR-TO-AIR COMBAT COMMS
By Graham "Minstrel" Piper
August 2000

Updated April 2005 by Vosene


Communications Part One covered a range of comms but excluded air to air combat. Part Two is dedicated specifically to comms which are relevant for air to air combat. These comms are used for "building the picture" and for controlling the engagements.

To communicate effectively in air to air combat using the correct terminology, a basic understanding of aspect angle is required.

Aspect Angle

• Aspect angle is the angle from the bandit's tail to you.
• Aspect angle is expressed in "degrees left" or "degrees right".

If the bandit is going left, the aspect angle is designated as left (e.g. 110 left).

If the bandit is going right, the aspect angle is designated as right (e.g. 110 right).




• Aspect angle is independent of the direction your own aircraft is pointing.







• A simplified way of communication a bandit's aspect angle is to classify it as "hot" or "cold".


Hot
• The bandit is hot when you are in his radar beam.
• The radar beam normally extends 60 either side of the bandit's nose, therefore the edges of the radar beam are at aspect angles of 120 left and 120 right.
• So:-
Aspect angle greater than 120 means the bandit is hot (i.e. high aspect)




Cold
• The bandit is cold when you are outside his radar beam.
• So:-
Aspect angle less than 120 means the bandit is cold.



A2A Radar Contact Identification

Radio calls should if possible identify whether the contact is hostile:-

"Contact" does not indicate hostile or friendly.
"Bandit" indicates hostile
"Bogey" indicates identity unknown
"Friendly" indicates friendly

Echo

Call reporting that a contact is a bandit according to NCTR.

e.g. #1 "Falcon 11, echo, north group"

Reporting A2A Radar Contacts

Formats for reporting single group radar contacts:-
• Bullseye (Degrees, miles, altitude, aspect)




• BRAA (Bearing, range, altitude, aspect)
Bearing relative to you.
Should only be used when communicating to others close to you (otherwise the bearing of the contact from them will be different).

• BRAA off the nose (Bearing, range, altitude, aspect)
BRAA should only be used when in formation with
all flight members' noses pointing the same way
(this is the preferred method when in formation).
Bearing is given to the nearest 10 degrees.




e.g. #2 "Falcon 12, contact, single group,
bullseye 320 for 25, angels 12, hot"
("for 25" means 25 miles)


e.g. #2 "Falcon 12, contact, single group,
bearing 120 for 25, angels 12, hot"
("120 for 25" means a bearing of 120 degrees from #2, range 25 miles)



e.g. #2 "Falcon 12, bandits, single group, 30
right for 20, angels 12, hot"
("30 right for 20" means 30 degrees right of #2's nose, range 20 miles)

e.g. #2 "Falcon 12, bandits, single group, on the nose for 20, angels 12, hot"
("on the nose" means directly in front of #2)

Radar

When reading bearing off the nose from the radar, it is important to understand that on the F-16 radar the MFD display is expanded sideways as the range decreases.


Responses to A2A Radar Contact Calls

• If lead reports the contact, #2 should check his radar and confirm whether he sees the same:-


• If #2 does NOT see the same, he should say so:-
(#2 may be unable to pick up the contact on his radar or he may be pointing in a different direction).


e.g. #1 "Falcon 11, bandits, single group, 30
right for 20, angels 12, hot"
#2 "Two, same"

e.g. #2 "Falcon 11, bandits, single group, 30
right for 20, angels 12, hot"
#1 Two, no picture"





Faded
Used to report that you can no longer see a radar contact:-
e.g. #2 "Falcon 12, faded"
#1 "One, bandit is 10 left, 25 miles, angels 15, cold" (to assist #2 in regaining lock)

e.g. #1 "Falcon 11, faded lead bandit, contact trailer"
#2 "Same"

Beaming

• Stable aspect angle of 70 to 110.
• Bandit is cold when beaming.
• Contact may fade when it is beaming.
Beaming Left


e.g. #1 "Falcon 11, bandits, single group, on the
nose for 20, angels 12, beaming left"
#2 "Two, same"

Beaming Right


e.g. #1 "Falcon 11, bandits, single group, on the
nose for 20, angels 12, beaming right"
#2 "Two, same"
Beaming Right


e.g. #1 "Falcon 11, bandits, single group, 10 left for 30, angels 14, beaming right"
#2 "Two, no picture"

Beaming Right


e.g. #1 "Falcon 11, bandits, single group, bullseye
325 for 65, angels 14, beaming right"
#2 "Two, no picture"






Flanking

• Stable aspect angle of 120 to 150.
• Bandit is hot when flanking.
Flanking Left


e.g. #1 "Falcon 11, bandits, single group, on the
nose for 20, angels 12, flanking left"
#2 "Two, same"
Flanking Right


e.g. #1 "Falcon 11, bandits, single group, bullseye 320 for 70, angels 26, flanking right"
#2 "Two, same"

Dragging

• Stable aspect angle of less than 70.
Dragging Left


e.g. #1 "Falcon 11, bandits, single
group, bullseye 350 for 20, angels 12, dragging left"
#2 "Two, same" Dragging


e.g. #1 "Falcon 11, bandits, single
group, on the nose for 20, angels 12, dragging"
#2 "Two, same" Dragging Right


e.g. #1 "Falcon 11, bandits, single
group, 10 right for 30, angels 12, dragging right"
#2 "Two, same"





Labelling

• Groups are labelled (usually by the flight lead) to identify them.
• Individual bandits within a group are labelled in the same way.
• They can be labelled in different ways, whichever is most appropriate at the time:-
e.g. For Groups e.g. For Individual Bandits
Lead / Trail Group Leader / Trailer
High / Low Group High / Low Bandit
Middle Group Middle Bandit
Left / Right Group Left / Right Bandit
North / South / East / West Group North / South / East / West Bandit
First / Second / Third Group, etc. First / Second / Third Bandit, etc.

Range Split

• Two or more groups/contacts on roughly the same bearing and separated primarily in range by more than 3 miles.
• If the split is longer than it is wide, it is a range split.
• The lead group/contact is called first and is used as the reference for the other.
• The accuracy of distances and bearing are not critical provided they are sufficiently accurate for the picture to be understood.




e.g. #1 "Falcon 11, bandits, 2 groups, range split 5. Lead group 20 right
for 30, angels 15, hot. Trail group angels 20, hot."
#2 "Two, same".

e.g. #1 "Falcon 11, bandits, 2 groups, range split 5. Lead group bullseye
275 for 35, angels 15, hot. Trail group angels 20, hot."
#2 "Two, same".

(No need to call the trail group's position because we know it is 5 miles behind the
lead group.)




Azimuth Split

• Two or more groups/contacts at roughly the same distance but separated in bearing by more than 3 miles.
• If the split is wider than it is long, it is an azimuth split.
• The first group/contact called is used as the reference for the other.



e.g. #1 "Falcon 11, bandits, 2 groups, azimuth split 10.
West group bullseye 185 for 65, angels 15, hot. East group angels 8, hot."
#2 "Two, same".
• No need to call the east group's position because
we know it is 10 miles east of the west group.


e.g. #1 "Falcon 11, bandits, 2 groups, azimuth split 10.
West group 20 right for 30, angles 10, hot.
East group angels 8, flanking right"
#2 "Two, same".
• No need to call the east group's position because
we know it is 10 miles east of the west group.

Range and Azimuth Split

• If it is not clear whether the split is range or azimuth, the two can be called together.
(deciding which way to call it is not critical provided the picture is understood)
• The nearest group/contact is called first and is used as the reference for the other.


e.g. #1 "Falcon 11, bandits, 2 groups, range split 10, azimuth 10.
Lead group 20 right for 40, angles 20, hot. Right group, angels 30."
#2 "Two, same".









Ladder

Three or more groups/contacts split by range.

• The lead group/contact is called first and is used as the reference for the others.

(spacings are examples only)
e.g. #1 "Falcon 11, bandits, 3 groups, ladder 10.
Lead group 20 left for 25, angles 20, hot.
Middle group, range split 5, angels 25.
Trail group angels 30."
#2 "Two, same".
("ladder 10" means the lead and trail groups are 10 miles apart)
("range split 5" means the middle group is 5 miles behind the lead group)
(no need to give the trail group's position because we know from "ladder 10" that it is 10 miles behind the lead group)

e.g. #1 "Falcon 11, bandits, 3 groups, ladder 10.
Lead group bullseye 260 for 25, angles 20, hot.
Second group, range split 5, angels 25.
Trail group angels 30."
#2 "Two, same".

Wall

Three or more groups/contacts split by azimuth.

• The first group/contact called is used as the reference for the others.

(spacings are examples only)
e.g. #1 "Falcon 11, bandits, 3 groups, wall 15.
South group 10 right for 35, angles 25, hot.
Middle group, azimuth 5, angels 15.
North group angels 15."
#2 "Two, same".
("wall 15" means the south and north groups are 15 miles apart)
("azimuth 5" means the middle group is 5 miles from the south group)
(no need to give the north group's position because we know from "wall 15" that it is 15 miles north of the south group)

e.g. #1 "Falcon 11, bandits, 3 groups, ladder 10.
Left group bullseye 260 for 35, angles 25, hot.
Second group, azimuth 5, angels 15.
Right group angels 15."
#2 "Two, same".









Vic

Three groups/contacts with the centre group/contact closest and other two azimuth split in trail.

• The centre group/contact is called first and is used as the reference for the range split.

(spacings are examples only)
e.g. #1 "Falcon 11, bandits, vic, azimuth 30.
Lead group on the nose for 40, angels 20, hot.
Left group, range split 10, angels 20.
Right group angels 23."
#2 "Two, same".
("vic" means that the lead group is in the centre)
("azimuth 30" means that the left and right groups are 30 miles apart)
(no need to give the azimuth of the left group from the lead group because we know from "vic, azimuth 30" that it will be approximately half of 30 miles)
(no need to give the right group's position because we know from "azimuth 30" that it is 30 miles right of the left group)

e.g. #1 "Falcon 11, bandits, vic, azimuth 30.
Lead group bullseye 089 for 127, angels 20, hot.
Left group, range split 10, angels 20.
Right group angels 23."
#2 "Two, same".

Champagne

Three groups/contacts with the two closest groups/contacts azimuth split and the other group/contact in the centre in trail (the opposite of vic).

• The left group is called first and is used as the reference for the range split.

(spacings are examples only)
e.g. #1 "Falcon 11, bandits, champagne, azimuth 30.
Left group 20 left for 40, angels 20, hot.
Right group, angels 20.
Trail group, range split 15, angels 16."
#2 "Two, same".
("champagne" means that the trail group is in the centre)
("azimuth 30" means that the left and right groups are 30 miles apart)
(no need to give the right group's position because we know from "azimuth 30" that it is 30 miles right of the left group)
(no need to give the azimuth of the trail group because we know from "champagne, azimuth 30" that it will be approximately half of 30 miles)

e.g. #1 "Falcon 11, bandits, champagne, azimuth 30.
West group bullseye 024 for 283, angels 20, hot.
East group, angels 20.
Trail group, range split 15, angels 16."
#2 "Two, same".

Sorting

Once individual bandits are identifiable within a group or groups, sorting establishes which bandit each aircraft will target.
• All friendlies in the engagement should know which bandit is targeted by whom.
• Sorting is normally directed by your flight lead.
• What this achieves:-
a) Avoids two friendlies firing at the same target and wasting missiles.
b) Puts as many bandits as possible on the defensive, which reduces the probability of them firing on you.
• Sorting is NOT an order to fire (the bandits may still be outside weapons range when sorting). You are free to fire when given "Weapons free" by lead or when ordered to fire.
• Once sorted, if the bandits change their positions relative to each other (i.e. the lead bandit becomes the trailer) you remain targeted on the same aircraft throughout the engagement unless changes the labelling by calling "New picture".




e.g. (if only one group):-
#1 "Falcon 11 is sorted on the leader. Two, sort on the trailer."
(tells #2 that #1 will target the lead bandit and orders #2 to target the trailing bandit)
#2 "Two, sorted, trailer"
(#2 confirms that he has the trailing bandit on radar and that he will target that bandit. By repeating the bandit he is sorted on, #2 lets #1 know that he has understood correctly)

e.g. #1 "Falcon 11 is sorted on the high bandit. Two, sort on the low bandit"
#2 "Two, sorted, low bandit"

e.g. (if more than one group):-
#1 "Falcon 11 is sorted on the leader, east group. Two, sort on the trailer"
(tells #2 that #1 will target the lead bandit and orders #2 to target the trailing bandit in the same group)
#2 "Two, sorted, trailer, east group"

e.g. #1 "Falcon 11 is sorted on the high bandit, lead group. Two, sort on the low bandit"
(tells #2 that #1 will target the high bandit in the lead group, as opposed to the trail group, and orders #2 to target the trailing bandit in the same group, i.e. the lead group)
#2 "Two, sorted, low bandit, lead group"

New Picture

A call (usually made by lead) to:-
a) Update the picture.
b) Change the labelling of groups and/or bandits within groups.


c) Change sorting.


e.g. #1 "Falcon 11, new picture. Bandits, 2 groups, azimuth split 15. West group 20 right for 30, angles 15, hot. East group angels 10, flanking right"
#2 "Two copy, same".

e.g. #1 "Falcon 11, new picture. One is sorted on the high bandit, north group. Two, sort on the low bandit"
#2 "Two, sorted"

Drop
Command to stop targeting a bandit/group.

e.g. #1 "Falcon 12, drop the north group"




Calling Your Shots
Your missile launch or guns calls should make it clear what you have fired on (not just in A2A but in A2G as well):-
• What this achieves:-
a) Lets friendlies know you what you are doing.
b) Avoids two friendlies firing at the same target and wasting missiles.
e.g. #2 "Falcon 12, Fox 3 on the lead bandit, angels 12"

e.g. #2 "Falcon 12, Fox 2 on the MiG-21 in a left turn, angels 6"

e.g. #2 "Falcon 12, guns on the MiG-21 in a left turn, angels 6"

e.g. #2 "Falcon 12, Magnum on mud 5 at the target"

e.g. #2 "Falcon 12, Rifle on the radar at the airfield"

Trashed
Your Fox 1 or Fox 3 shot has been beaten.

e.g. #1 "Falcon 11, trashed"
Cheap Shot
You broke radar lock before your Fox 3 went active (countdown changes from "A" to "T" on the HUD when active). When the missile does go active it may not see the bandit, in which case it will miss.

e.g. #1 "Falcon 11, cheap shot"
Pitbull
Your Fox 3 has gone active. Tells others that you are able to engage other targets or close for a Fox 2 if necessary.

e.g. #1 "Falcon 11, pitbull"
Your Manoeuvring

Manoeuvres by friendly aircraft relative to the bandits:-

Cranking Left


e.g. #1 "Falcon 11, cranking west"

e.g. #1 "Falcon 11, cranking left"
Notching Left


e.g. #1 "Falcon 11, notching west"

e.g. #2 "Falcon 11, notching left"
Pumping


e.g. #1 "Falcon 11, pumping
south"

(only use "left/right" if the flight is in formation with all noses pointing the same way)



Turning Cold
A call informing that you are turning away from the threat.

e.g. #1 "Falcon 11, turning cold"
(also means "I can't see you or the bandits on radar, tell me what's happening if you can)
#2 "#2 copy, bandits north for 20, beaming west"

Turning Hot (or re-committing)
A call informing that you are turning towards the threat area.
e.g. #1 "Falcon 11, turning hot"
(also probably means "I don't know what's happening, tell me where the bandits are if you can")
#2 "#2 copy, bandits, single group, bullseye 220 for 20, flanking east"

e.g. #1 "Falcon 11, re-committing"
(means the same as "turning hot")

Check Left / Right
An instruction to change heading by a given number of degrees to the left or right of the current heading:-

• To the flight:-





• To a wingman:-



e.g. #1 "Falcon 1 flight, check left 30"
(e.g. if current heading was 240, the new heading would be 210)
#2 "Two"
#3 "Three"
#4 "Four"

e.g. #1 "Falcon 12, check right 20"
(e.g. if the current heading was 065, the new heading would be 085)
#2 "Two"

Reference
An instruction to turn to a new heading:-
• To the flight:-




• To a wingman:-


• To the second element:-


• To another flight:-


A waypoint can also be used for a reference call:-




e.g. #1 "Falcon 1 flight, reference 350"
#2 "Two"
#3 "Three"
#4 "Four"

e.g. #1 "Falcon 12, reference 350"
#2 "Two"

e.g. #1 "Falcon 13, reference 350"
#2 "Two"

e.g. #1 "Cowboy 11, Falcon 11, reference 065"
#2 "Cowboy 11, copy"

e.g. #1 "Cowboy 11, Falcon 11, reference
waypoint 4"


Gimbals

The bandit is on the edge of your radar screen
or close to the vertical limits of radar. You may
lose contact/lock.



e.g. #2 "Cowboy 12, gimbals"

Green Lane

If engaged with bandits, this is a call to tell others the direction in which there are no bandits. So if they need to disengage, that is the way to go.
• If other friendlies are already in that direction they may be able to engage the treat as you disengage.


e.g. #1 "Cowboy 12, green lane south"

Out

Direction in which you are heading as you disengage.

e.g. #2 "Cowboy 12, out south"

e.g. #2 "Cowboy 12, naked, out south"
("naked" means #2 has no RWR indications)

Scram

Command given by lead for the flight to head quickly in a given direction.

e.g. #1 "Cowboy 1 flight, bandits north, scram south"

Monitor

Command to watch a bandit/group and report if they change heading or become a threat.


e.g. #1 "Cowboy 12, monitor bullseye 165 for 35"

Delouse

Where there is a furball of other friendlies and bandits, this is a command to assist by engaging the bandits.


e.g. #1 "Cowboy 12, delouse bullseye 210 for 35"


Visual and Tally

Visual - In visual contact with friendly aircraft
(or ground position).

Tally - In visual contact with bandit
(or enemy ground position).



If your wingman is in a dogfight :-

e.g. #2 "Cowboy 12, visual"
(means #2 can see #1 visually)

e.g. e.g. #2 "Falcon 12, MiG-29, left 10 o'clock, high"
#1 "One, tally 1"
("tally 1" means #1 sees 1 MiG)

e.g. #2 "Cowboy 12, visual, tally"
(means #2 can see #1 and the bandit visually)

Tumbleweed

Informs your flight that you have lost all SA and you are requesting a vector to the threat.
e.g. #1 "Cowboy 11, tumbleweed"
#2 "Cowboy 11, Cowboy 12, bandits, single group, north for 10, cold"




Last edited by Gigolety; 11/13/13 10:18 PM.
Inline advert (2nd and 3rd post)

#3862178 - 11/13/13 10:24 PM Re: Air to AIr Brevity Word Communication [Re: Gigolety]  
Joined: Dec 2012
Posts: 63
Gigolety Offline
Junior Member
Gigolety  Offline
Junior Member

Joined: Dec 2012
Posts: 63
It should be Click here . This is the squadron.

Cheers

#3898361 - 01/20/14 03:36 AM Re: Air to AIr Brevity Word Communication [Re: Gigolety]  
Joined: Nov 2007
Posts: 3,674
EinsteinEP Offline
Just a Noob
EinsteinEP  Offline
Just a Noob
Senior Member

Joined: Nov 2007
Posts: 3,674
Tucson, AZ
Quote:
There are no docs listed in this subcategory.
Got another link, or will docs be uploaded there soon?


Shoot to Kill.
Play to Have Fun.
#3934945 - 04/05/14 02:58 PM Re: Air to AIr Brevity Word Communication [Re: Gigolety]  
Joined: Dec 2012
Posts: 63
Gigolety Offline
Junior Member
Gigolety  Offline
Junior Member

Joined: Dec 2012
Posts: 63
I think it should be still there.

Use a search engine and place 185th communication manual and it shall appear. That's how I got it.


Another nice example about how to prepare communication before a flight is at this web-page:

A Fighter Pilot's Guide to Effective Communication

It is a small general rules explanation.

Last edited by Gigolety; 04/05/14 03:01 PM.

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