Most simple solution I can think of is to get a piece of plywood or MDF slightly bigger than the chair base. Sit the chair on it and mark where all the wheels are. Build up pieces of wood around the wheels to stop them moving. For added grip to the floor you could stick a piece of rubber to the underside of the sheet of wood.
Slightly easier would be to use the (5?) rectangles drawn around the wheels, to cut holes for the wheels to drop into. 1/4" thick MDF/ply should give good results, but deeper works better of course.
If one would want fast "locking", you could add wheel guidance on top.