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#1652492 - 08/16/05 04:38 AM EECH Training Mission Report #2  
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BeachAV8R Offline
Lifer
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Today we will be embarking on our second training mission where we will be looking at the various sensors and targeting systems available to us while flying the RAH-66 Comanche.

Flying an attack helicopter is all about putting ordnance on the enemy and with the Comanche we have several different and unique systems to assist us in fulfilling that mission. The helicopter serves a unique role on the battlefield in that it is capable of fulfilling many missions: from simple search and destroy sorties to reconnaissance and escort duties. Some missions will have you stealthily sneaking about the battlefield in search of valuable information on enemy positions while other missions will have you mercilessly beating the enemy into submission. The sensors onboard the Comanche can be both an asset and a liability to completing your mission.

In our first training mission we flew a recon mission where stealth was the order of the day. Our mission was to penetrate deep into enemy territory to gain valuable intelligence on an enemy location that would allow for future targeting with more appropriate resources. Since blasting our way in and out wouldnt be conducive to the ultimate goals of the mission we chose the sneak and peek method of ingress and egress and in fact the enemy never even knew we were there. The reason the enemy never knew we were there was because we only used passive sensors to accomplish the mission. At no time did we broadcast our position to the enemy by overflying their positions or by using our active sensors such as air or ground radar. Additionally, since killing targets wasnt the objective, we used a stealthy profile by loading only internal weapons in our Comanche thus greatly reducing our radar signature.

Today we will be flying with externally mounted weapons which are positioned on removable wings that attach to the sides of the Comanche fuselage. Unfortunately these wings and the ordnance they carry are not capable of being jettisoned in a pinch, so we must accept the less stealthy characteristics of this configuration for the entire duration of our mission.





For todays training flight we will be flying to an enemy Forward Air Refueling Point (FARP) which is simply a battlefield refueling and rearming base that is placed in a forward location to allow for greater and faster access to the operations area. Generally FARPs lack the complex infrastructure of larger airfields and only contain refueling vehicles, tents and perhaps some area defenses.

After liftoff we consult our map to find the general location of the enemy FARP. Since this training mission is being flown in free-flight mode with hostiles set to OFF we can navigate and use our sensors freely without having to worry about the enemy response. Keep in mind though that in the real campaign the situation is very dynamic and what can be a safe observation location one moment can rapidly deteriorate if you dont stay aware of the activity around you. As I stated in the first training mission, the mission map is probably the most valuable tool for keeping aware of your location, known enemy positions, threats, terrain and general orientation. Remember that in the campaign, the fog of war will obscure enemy movements and locations unless they have been under direct observation by allied units, so just because an area appears clear on the map doesnt necessarily mean it is safe; proceed with caution!

One of the most useful features of the map is the terrain elevation (contour) data. Using the terrain (both natural and artificial features) to mask your movements and provide cover is the most essential skill to master when flying combat helicopters. Indeed, low level flight and the attendant risks associated with it are probably just as likely to kill you as getting shot down by enemy forces. Once you are familiar with reading the contour lines on the mission map you will be able to compare what you are seeing outside of the cockpit windows with the terrain features that are depicted on the map. Generally speaking, as is the case with most military applications, control of the high ground is the preferred tactical position. Particularly in helicopter operations, being at a high point (elevation) is desirable since terrain sloping down away from you implies that you have stored up potential energy (altitude) that you can rapidly convert into kinetic energy (speed) in order to evade, escape, or attack. Additional considerations include a greater line of sight (LOS) distance, greater weapons range, and the ability to quickly place terrain between you and an adversary should the requirement arise. Thats not to say terrain depressions (river beds, roads, valleys, canyons) dont have advantages for they are valuable for providing cover, stealth and safe transit. Learning to use both types of terrain will go a long way toward keeping you alive and effective on the battlefield.

Here weve approached to within about 10km of the enemy FARP. As indicated by the red threat ring around the area there is an enemy anti-air unit located near the FARP providing protection against air attack, so we must take that into consideration when planning our approach to the site. Weve moved up into position just south-southeast of the FARP and have found a peak which has a dominating view of the low terrain to the north. Unfortunately after initiating a scan of the area with my air-to-ground radar I realize the FARP is still outside of the 8km maximum scan range of my radar (drawn in yellow) so my sensors dont detect anything. In the campaign this would be a huge blunder since it would alert the enemy to my location without me having derived any useful information from the effort. Enemy forces (helicopters and fighters) would no doubt be vectored to my location very quickly to try to interdict my efforts.





Since my first approach was so poorly executed I elect to descend down the ridgeline to my west (left) and loop around to a point just west of the FARP that appears to offer a small hill that will provide me with cover while I make my approach. I could place or move waypoints to aid in my movement and navigation but using compass headings and navigating by referring to the map and comparing terrain, and features (buildings, powerlines, rivers, etc.) to what Im seeing outside will help develop my pilotage skills for future tight scrapes.

Ive now moved around to the west side of the FARP but have now closed to within approximately 5km without being detected since the hill is providing terrain masking. Keep in mind that terrain masking works both ways: it can prevent enemy sensors from detecting you, but it also can prevent your sensors from seeing them!



Looking at the TSD MFD we can see the terrain map mirrors what we saw on the bigger mission map. Keep in mind that the TSD map is only oriented relative to your helicopter heading whereas the mission map is always configured so that north is up. Practice reading and interpreting the TSD compared to the mission map and you will soon understand the thought process that is necessary to integrate the two of them together.



The first sensor we will try out will be the ground radar. The ground radar (or Fire Control Radar / FCR) is the quickest and dirtiest sensor that will rapidly tell you what is out there. It is a line-of-sight system meaning that the system must have a direct view of the target in order to detect and report it. That means that if terrain or a structure is blocking the radar beam there could be threats in the shadow of the beam that arent being detected.

Cont



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#1652493 - 08/16/05 04:38 AM Re: EECH Training Mission Report #2  
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BeachAV8R Offline
Lifer
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Lifer

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In a demonstration of how terrain will block the FCR beam Ive turned on the FCR (mapped, of course, to a button on my HOTAS) while Im still behind the hill west of the enemy FARP. Since the hill is blocking the radar signal nothing appears on the MFD. You can see on the right MFD I still have the TSD display selected. The radar scan volume, which at its maximum width setting is a 90 degree slice, is superimposed on the TSD display as a red arc showing the lateral and range limit (8km) of the sensor.



The helicopter is in stable hover hold mode (SHIFT-H) which maintains the helicopter position and altitude at the time it is engaged. Taking the helicopter out of stable hover hold and putting into normal hover hold (H) will now allow me to control the altitude of the helicopter using the collective (throttle) to rise up above the hill in front of me and allow my sensors to have line-of-sight (LOS) into the valley on the other side. Immediately the FCR and TSD fill up with symbols as the radar contacts pour in.





The FCR displays all of the contacts it has detected and without me having to do anything it has also targeted what it has determined to be the highest threat of all of the contacts (the SAM vehicle). In the upper left hand corner of the FCR MFD you can see the words ALL and AUTO which means the FCR will report all contacts, friendly or enemy, and with the FCR set in AUTO the FCR will automatically target the highest threat contact every time. These settings can be changed as we will see in a moment.



It bears mentioning that the FCR is a very in your face sensor. If enemy forces and defenses werent aware of your presence before you turned on the FCR, you can bet that seconds after you initiate an FCR scan you will be targeted by newly alerted anti-air units, helicopters and fighters. You can minimize your vulnerability when using the FCR by waiting until you are in an ideal attack position before activating it, keeping the scan time to a minimum, and keeping the scan volume to the narrowest and shortest range that suits your needs. It is possible to set the scan to single sweep so that only one pass is made with the radar and then it will automatically shut off. You can also set the FCR to display only the information that you wish to have displayed, making your attack more efficient. In most cases the primary threat to you and your helicopter are air defense units. Air defense units are classified as HIGH threat priorities while lesser targets fall into the MEDIUM and LOW categories. Using the threat priority filter on the FCR you can chose to display the threat priority that interests you (numpad-9 and numpad-3). In this case Ive switched the FRC to display on HIGH threat priorities so the display has decluttered to show only the air defense vehicle.



The target identification is provided at the bottom of the FCR and is also displayed in your HUD. Target ID depends on your realism settings. I chose to enable the co-pilot/gunner target ID feature since normally you would have a second crewmember to assist you with attack duties. With the CP/G target ID enabled there will be a brief pause of several seconds upon acquiring or designating a target while the CP/G identifies the target. Flying erratically or moving the sensor about (switching the FCR target or moving the optical sensor) will delay this process further until the target stabilizes under the sensor of interest.

The HUD displays the information that is being sent by whatever sensor is active. In the bottom right the sensor type will be displayed (in this case the ground radar), the range to the target, the target ID and the type of weapon you have selected (if any). The box above the target ID tag is Target Acquisition and Designation Sight (TADS) field of regard box and the smaller box within is the TADS field of view marker. The field of regard box represents the limits that your TADS system (what you can actually see using your helmet optics) can display and represents +/- 120 degrees left or right of the nose and +30 up and -60 degrees down. The small box within the field of regard box represents the actual field of view that you are looking at and allows you to quickly see where, in relation to the entire possible field of view (and the nose of the helicopter) you are looking. Finally, the bug at the top of the compass display indicates the compass heading that the sensor is looking at. Getting familiar with this concept can take some getting used to since many fixed wing pilots are used to the HUD being fixed in position on the longitudinal axis of the aircraft. Where goes the HUD, so goes the aircraft (in general terms). That is not so with a helicopter using a helmet mounted sighting system. It is perfectly acceptable to be flying along with your head rotated 90 degrees to the right, blazing away with your cannon while watching the data from your helmet display and navigating the helicopter relative to what is in front of you.



Cont



#1652494 - 08/16/05 04:39 AM Re: EECH Training Mission Report #2  
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BeachAV8R Offline
Lifer
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Lifer

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Switching to the MEDIUM priority on the FCR will display those threats that the FCR determines represent the next grade lower threat. In this case, two helicopters that are parked at the FARP (Ka-52 Hokums) are considered a medium threat since they are not yet airborne. Armor and other mechanized units are often also classified as medium threats although you should approach them with caution since their machine guns and small arms can inflict serious damage on your helicopter.



LOW priority threats are usually infrastructure (buildings, bridges) or ground support vehicles and supplies. Low priority threats dont shoot back and are usually left for mop up work at closer ranges. Keep in mind however that it is possible for high priority threats to be masked by buildings and other features so just because your FCR is reporting that the area is clear doesnt mean you should relax and get careless!



The manual provides specific guidance on what the symbols on the FCR stand for with different symbols being assigned for wheeled vehicles, tracked vehicles, air defense units, helicopters, aircraft, etc. Each symbol can appear as either a solid contact or a hollow contact on the FCR. A hollow contact indicates a unit that you no longer have line-of-sight with. When this happens the target remains in the fire control computer since it has already been detected, but a NO LOS message will appear on the FCR to indicate that you are no longer directly monitoring that contact. This is important for several reasons since the contact could be moving and it may not be where you last left it, and it could be that an object is now in your way that will prevent you from engaging the target with your weapons.



In addition to the CP/G helping you identify targets you can also use a bit of a cheat to determine what exactly you are targeting. This view can come in handy when you are trying to target specific infrastructure targets around airfields (in particular generator buildings which we will get to in another training mission). The target inset view (ALT-F12) will open a small box that will show you an external view of the object you have targeted. In this case weve designated the SA-19 air defense vehicle.



The FCR also has an air mode which is obviously for detecting air-to-air threats. The limitations of the ground mode of the FCR apply also to the air mode in that you must have LOS to detect air contacts (allied or enemy). There are only two choices for decluttering the air mode of the FCR: you can select ALL contacts visible (allied and enemy), or ENEMY only. Another difference is that the air radar scans a volume of 360 degrees around your helicopter as opposed to 90 degrees maximum for the ground radar allowing you to detect aircraft and helicopters in all sectors around your helicopter.



The time required to sweep at 360 degree arc around your helicopter can take a long time however, so it is better to consult the mission map to determine what slice of sky would be better to point your radar at. By decreasing the azimuth of the radar scan you increase the frequency of updates and derive better targeting data. Be aware though that by limiting the coverage you will be opening yourself up to an undetected attack from another quadrant! Here Ive narrowed down the azimuth and slewed the volume over to the right instead of pedal turning my helicopter. Ive found the best place to map the azimuth and scan volume is to my mini-mouse stick on the throttle of my HOTAS. Up and down presses of the mini-stick narrow and expand the beam while left and right movements move the arc around the circle.





Keep in mind that boring around the sky with your air-to-air radar on is probably the single most effective way to get yourself killed in EECH. While flying around with the ground FCR activated is bad enough, the air FCR will broadcast your position in a much more pronounced fashion and every enemy fighter and attack helicopter in the theater will be lured to your scent. Enemy fighters are the greatest hazard to you on the EECH battlefield so trust me when I tell you that you dont want to broadcast your position to them. And remember that enemy units will call for air support if they are under attack!

Cont



#1652495 - 08/16/05 04:39 AM Re: EECH Training Mission Report #2  
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BeachAV8R Offline
Lifer
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Lifer

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That about wraps up the FCR systems. The FCR is supplemented with other more stealthy targeting systems that I like to refer to as what you see is what you kill systems. The remaining targeting systems are optical systems that use various methods to make direct observations and attacks on the enemy. The aforementioned TADS system is the heart of the electro-optics (EO) targeting capabilities. Generally speaking the TADS systems are normally used while in a stationary position since making running attacks using the EO sensors can be a disorienting affair. The first and most effective TADS/EO component is the Forward Looking Infra-Red (FLIR) system. The FLIR is most useful at night when the contrast between the cool background and the heat of vehicles and structures is most pronounced. The FLIR display has several magnifications from 1x (which is useful for scanning large areas) down to 128x. The FLIR MFD shows a grey scale depiction of the outside world with hotter objects appearing whiter. The magnification level is shown on the upper right corner while the field of regard and field of view indicator is at the bottom of the display. An important distinction with this display is that the heading tape at the top of the MFD is NOT the heading of the helicopter rather it is the direction the FLIR is looking! Here we see the same target at 1x magnification and 128x magnification.



The FLIR system is particularly good for observing enemy activity without alerting them to your presence. It is possible to find a good observation point and scan the area for hot spots and find enemy units that are invisible to the naked eye or hiding among other clutter.



Occasionally you can detect with the FLIR what you cannot detect with the FCR. Tanks with turrets just barely poking out above cover or terrain are particularly good targets to spot with the FLIR. Keep in mind that the FLIR performance is severely degraded in rain and fog. If poor weather moves into your area the FLIR will not be the sensor of choice. Here we see an image of the FLIR MFD while observing an airfield during a rainstorm. The LO LIGHT warning is an indicator that sensor performance is being severely degraded by the conditions.





Another EO sensor is the Daylight TV (DTV) which is basically a telescope that can be used during the day to give a close up image of a target. The focal length for the DTV is fixed at 128x giving a very narrow field of view that is difficult to slew for targeting purposes unless it is slaved to the FCR. I believe in real life the DTV would be useful for making detailed observations in vivid color of a target from far away (since the FLIR image does not show true color) but EECH does not model the actual working of the DTV so I almost never use this targeting system. Due to the light gathering limitations of this sensor it does not work at night and you will get a similar LO LIGHT warning if you attempt to use it in darkness.



The last targeting system we will discuss is the Helmet Integrated Display and Sight System (HIDSS) which is actually what you are looking at anytime I refer to the HUD. Simply put the HIDSS is a moving HUD that is slaved to your head so that wherever you look both flight and targeting data remain in your field of view. An additional bonus is that if you have your cannon selected the cannon is slaved to the crosshair on the HIDSS giving you a true look and shoot capability (truly great with TrackIR). Whenever you have the HIDSS targeting system active all you have to do is look in the general direction of the target and the system will automatically identify and lock on the target that is closest to the boresight (center) of the HIDSS display (the HUD). If you happen to have a weapon selected you will also get a target designator (TD) box around the target so that you can know for sure which item in the field of view is targeted.



Cont



#1652496 - 08/16/05 04:39 AM Re: EECH Training Mission Report #2  
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BeachAV8R Offline
Lifer
BeachAV8R  Offline
Lifer

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The HIDSS mode is particularly useful against infantry that carry shoulder fired SAMs. Since infantry dont appear on the radar, every village and building harbors a potential threat from man portable SAMs. The first time you aware that they are even there will likely be a missile hitting your helicopter.



The last item Ill cover isnt truly a targeting sensor but it is very much a part of the sensor package and is essential to both targeting and flying at night: the Pilot Night Vision System (PNVS). The PNVS system amplifies ambient light to allow targeting and navigation at night. Poor weather also affects the PNVS system reducing forward visibility so care must be taken at high speed and low level during night flying in bad weather lest you run into something. The difference between non-PNVS vision and PNVS vision is dramatic.





That wraps up our training mission on sensors and targeting. There is a wealth of more detailed information in the Razorworks manual and plenty of practice will be required to get proficient at the different modes and situations where each is required. After mapping many of the commands to your HOTAS your fingers will be moving like a concert pianist when the action gets hot and heavy. Id encourage you to experiment with your sensors and targeting systems in Free Flight mode to initially get the feel for how they work.

BeachAV8R

Alienware P4 3.4 Ghz
2 GB DDR2 RAM
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Saitex X52
CH Pro Pedals
TrackIR2



#1652497 - 08/16/05 05:31 AM Re: EECH Training Mission Report #2  
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MilesTeg Offline
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Awesome as usual.

Has EECH lured you away from LB2 for the time being?

#1652498 - 08/16/05 06:54 AM Re: EECH Training Mission Report #2  
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Amaroq Offline
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Great report, but as far as sensors go you're missing out on the coolest sensor of them all by flying that mothballed flying PCB aka the Comanche instead of a Hokum-B as real men do. All hail the Periscope! ;\)


Don Quixote's misfortune is not his imagination, but Sancho Panza.
#1652499 - 08/16/05 07:04 AM Re: EECH Training Mission Report #2  
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BeachAV8R Offline
Lifer
BeachAV8R  Offline
Lifer

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MilesTeg - For the time being..yes. LB2 still has a place on my legacy machine (with my V5-5500)...and with new development taking place there's no telling where LB2 might go!

Amaroq - Hehe..ya' know..I'm torn. That periscope is a damn cool piece of equipment! I'm trying to figure out how I'm going to integrate the Hokum into the training. I'm guessing I'll do a "differences" training report on the significant issues between the two. \:\) Gotta love those ejection seats too!! \:D

BeachAV8R



#1652500 - 08/16/05 07:54 AM Re: EECH Training Mission Report #2  
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Interesting article. I might just re-install EEAH and EECH. Been busy lately playing the LB2 campaigns.
Whats so special about this Hokum periscope?

#1652501 - 08/16/05 08:03 AM Re: EECH Training Mission Report #2  
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MaceUK33(@ work) Offline
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Nice report. Yeah the Hokum ejection seats are fun, my son loves flying it just so he can yell out 'taking heavy fire - eject, eject!!' and pop the pilot and CP/G out the top!

I would like to see something on the Russion helos as I haven't really them much.

#1652502 - 08/16/05 01:03 PM Re: EECH Training Mission Report #2  
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Istanbul
great article

#1652503 - 08/16/05 06:33 PM Re: EECH Training Mission Report #2  
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Bib4Tuna Offline
I will take you to Jabba
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One thing you can do to keep the radar range on screen while scouting for targets and without giving your position away, is to configure the AA and AG radars to "Single Sweep" (the "KPD *" key) and changing the display choice in the TSD MFD to ALL (CTRL+D (or maybe it is SHIFT+D, @Work, can't check)2 times). This will give you also your waypoints and targets on screen and will show the radar range pie all the time, although you will not be transmitting. When you want to engage the FCR, just use the "KPD /" key to do a single sweep, or the "KPD *" to scan continuously.

That way you will always know when you are in range of your intended scanning area before engaging the radar.

Better start converting these to PDF right away, that way you will not have them piled up to be done at the end. I predict these will be in high demand very soon.

#1652504 - 08/16/05 07:42 PM Re: EECH Training Mission Report #2  
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BeachAV8R Offline
Lifer
BeachAV8R  Offline
Lifer

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Hey that's a good trick Bib4Tuna! I was wondering why the radar "pie" disappeared from my TSD because I knew that I had seen it superimposed on it before even when I had the radar off...your single sweep technique must have been the mode I was in! \:D

Good tip!

Regards..

BeachAV8R



#1652505 - 08/16/05 11:37 PM Re: EECH Training Mission Report #2  
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Bib4Tuna Offline
I will take you to Jabba
Bib4Tuna  Offline
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Quote:
Originally posted by Bib4Tuna:
...This will give you also your waypoints and targets on screen and will show the radar range pie all the time,...
Quote:
Originally posted by BeachAV8R:

...I was wondering why the radar "pie" disappeared from my TSD...
\:D
HA! I had to skip lunch today, and when I was writing that I was thinking that maybe there was still some blueberry pie left at the cafeteria (not many dessert fans around here). So I was thinking of a word for describing the radar range on the TSD, and wedge crossed my mind... BANG!...I wrote pie... [Cheeseburger]

#1652506 - 08/17/05 12:16 AM Re: EECH Training Mission Report #2  
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Birdbrain Offline
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Thanks for breaking all this down and for the very helpful screenshots. I will study it closely.


As ever,
Birdbrain
#1652507 - 08/17/05 01:26 PM Re: EECH Training Mission Report #2  
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Cougar_DK Offline
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Denmark, Farum
Another great one from your Beach. I really like to read your stuff.

Would you care to share your HOTAS profile?

Cheers
Mark


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