Boom and Zoom Tactics, Part Three
Be sure to read all of the parts
of this series
[ Boom and Zoom,
Part One ][ Part
Two ][ Part Three ][ Part Four ]
Ill conclude this series with
some basic tips on how to fly a Boom and Zoom using "Hit
and Climb" (HnC) tactics. Following a discussion of the
some academic considerations, well look at two situations
WW2 setting and something a little more current. Well
focus in on the use of snap, padlock, and external views to
understand how to visualize this maneuver in our sims. I had
planned to finish up this part with a look at the typical
maneuver flow and simple communication techniques that you
and your flying partner may find helpful as you gang up on
the bandit in a 2v1 engagement, but, because of the length
of this last part, Ive decided to put that into a separate
What Is the HnC?
The HnC is an exaggerated High Yo-Yo
type of maneuver. In some A2A manuals, you may find a maneuver
called a Quarter Plane maneuver. The HnC resembles this maneuver
as well. The main difference between a HnC and these two maneuvers
is the point at which the maneuver is begun. The Yo-Yo or
Quarter Plane maneuvers are repositioning maneuvers intended
to gain or preserve turning room and are usually begun before
the pilot reaches gun range in order to avoid a flight path
overshoot. On the other hand, the HnC maneuver is usually
begun after the pilot has fired.
When Should I Use It?
Use the HnC to make slashing attacks
on an opponent that you have an energy advantage over. This
maneuver is well suited for an engagement where you cannot
turn with your opponent and your top speed advantage is minimal
example would be the F-4 against a MiG-21. The top speeds
of these two fighters are close enough that you in your F-4
cannot count on a HnR tactic to get you the needed lateral
turning room. In your attempt at a HnR, the MiG-21 probably
will not be able to catch you, but it will be able to remain
close enough to get inside the turn radius of your turn back
and this is to be avoided at all costs!
You may also use the HnC tactic when
you want to avoid a prolonged turning fight
case when you find yourself outnumbered or at some other tactical
The HnC is best used against a bandit
that has depleted its energy state
usually as the result
of a hard turn. When I flew the F-4 and the F-104, we used
this maneuver against the F-5 (a good MiG-21 surrogate). We
knew that if we could get the F-5 into a hard turn, it would
not have the excess energy to be able to follow us into the
vertical. We used our superior thrust to weight to power ourselves
up and out of the plane of the F-5s turn.
How Is the HnC Maneuver Flown?
Lets follow the same line of
thought that we used in the HnR discussion
begin with the entry. Again, I caution you all about making
but here are some ideas to consider.
Unlike the HnR, I would prefer the HnC attack to be initiated
from a level to climbing entry. Why? Because my objective
is to climb above the plane of turn of the opponent. If I
dive on the opponent, it is possible that when I initiate
my climb that my turn radius actually takes me through that
plane of turn. If the bandit is in a level turn, I would therefore
be descending below him before I started back up. Any altitude
that used to be below the bandit is of no good to me in my
it is wasted energy, fuel, time, and therefore
Because of this, if I dive on my opponent,
I want to level off prior to reaching gun range. To do this,
you must have the lateral turning room needed to descend down
towards the bandit and then be able to raise your nose to
level your aircraft with the plane of the bandits turn.
More detail on this will come later. A diving entry is fine
just as long as you do not allow it to turn around and bite
you on the rear as you execute your vertical extension!
Now lets consider the actual
pull up. But first, lets stop for a second for a reality
check. Dont forget why we are in this position in the
first place...we are making a gun attack! So make a good one!
Let's not start thinking about our reposition and forget about
killing the bandit
thats getting the cart before
the horse! Drive in and take your shot
then start your
HnC reposition. Its nice to plan ahead, but dont
take it too far.
OK! Back to the problem at hand
In the HnC pull up, you want an answer
to two questions
when do I begin the maneuver
and how do I do it?
Lets take the when
first. In the HnC vertical pull up, there is a fine line
between too soon, just right,' and too
late. In your sim, you will not have much time to ponder
this! The decision point comes very fast. As in most BFM situations,
there is no simple answer. Here are some of your considerations
do not want to pull so soon that you telegraph
your intentions to your opponent. On the other hand, if you
delay your pull up, there is a good chance that the bandit
may be able to extend away from your re-attack.
Here is a tip. Use the angle that
you approach the bandit at as a reference. If you are in
his front quarter
within 30 degrees of his nose
consider pulling up before you pass his wingline. What is
this called? A Lead Turn!! Remember, in BFM a well-performed
lead turn is next to Godliness!! Your closure in this situation
is a major point of emphasis
the greater the closure,
the sooner you may initiate the lead turn pull up. You can
expect the bandits speed to give you the required lateral
spacing as you climb.
If you approach the bandit on the
beam, be very careful about pulling up too soon. Do not
telegraph your intentions in this way
are letting the bandit off the hook.' As soon as he
sees you pull up, if hes smart, hell unload and
head for the deck (or if he has the energy, he may pull up
into you to force a vertical scissors). Instead, delay your
pull up until you approach his flight path. In this manner,
you are pulling up into the bandits six area, not his
For me, one technique is that I begin
my pull when I cease firing the gun, regardless of approach
angle. I know that my firing distance is close enough that
Ill not pull up too soon in the front quarter, and it
will also be close enough that Ill not give my intentions
away on a beam approach. The next diagram shows a red ellipse
that represents typical pull up points depending on the angle
of your approach to the bandit. The concept is derived from
nominal max effective gun ranges. The idea is that your pull
up point varies with aspect.
Now the second part of our question
"how". How to perform the HnC pull up is basically
a matter of lift vector control. In the HnR, our first step
was to turn to an extension heading. In the HnC, we follow
the same thinking, but instead of turning, we are going to
climb. Just as the HnR turn heading was important, so is the
orientation of the HnC climb.
When we talked about the HnR attack
in Part Two, we said the extension had both a lateral and
a vertical component. The same is true of the HnC climb. The
first is the flight path relative to the bandit. Here,
once again, we bring the bandits wingline into the discussion.
Visualize yourself looking down on to the bandits plane
of turn just as the HnC fighter is beginning its pull up.
The fuselage axis of the HnC fighter makes an angle with the
In the pull up, the HnC pilot wants
to get vertical separation
and he also wants a little
lateral separation. This lateral separation is usually gotten
behind the bandits wingline. Why? Because the HnC pilot
is setting himself up for a re-attack, and he does not want
to be overhead the bandit so much as he wants to be high and
slightly behind. He needs the spacing to the bandits
six oclock in order to be able to level out of his re-attack
dive prior to taking another shot.
What this then means is that the HnC
pilot needs to get his nose behind the bandits wingline
prior to (or during) the pull up. He does not want to climb
with his nose pointed ahead of the wingline. This will impede
his ability to get lateral separation
and even worse,
may offer the bandit a chance to pull up and force an overshoot.
Your objective in the climb is to minimize your forward movement
relative to the flight path of the bandit. In doing this,
you will force the bandit to move out in front of you, creating
as a result lateral separation in addition to the vertical
separation you are getting in the climb. In the next diagram,
picture yourself looking down upon the bandits plane
of turn from above. The flight path vectors represent movement
in the plane of the bandit only.
But you can overdo a good thing! There
is no advantage to pointing too far into the bandits
six. I suggest that a nose position of down the wingline to
no more than 30 degrees aft is sufficient. The only exception
to this is the situation where the HnC pilot meets the bandit
more or less head on. In this case, the HnC pilot should disregard
his excessive fuselage misalignment and not try to change
his heading before beginning the climb...to do so would take
too much time
time that would allow the bandit to possibly
separate. In this situation, the HnC pilot should pull up
on his attack heading. Once in the climb, he may pull up in
a loop-type reposition or may roll into a bank to incline
his climbing turn into a pitchback-type maneuver.
Good! Lets move on to the climb
The second angle is the climb angle
the angle of the HnC fighters flight path above the plane
of the bandits turn. Lets be careful here.
We are talking about the angle between the HnC pilots
flight path and the plane of the bandits turn. Do not
use the horizon as a reference unless the bandit is in a level
What if the bandit is not in a level
turn? Can you still fly a HnC attack? Of course! Remember
is always flown in relation to the bandit, not the horizon.
The climb portion of the HnC is a vertical reposition
the "vertical" in this case is in relation to the
bandits plane of turn
not the horizon. The next
figure shows this.
Ideally, you want to orient your lift
vector 90 degrees opposite the bandits plane of turn.
One way to help you visualize this is to use his fuselage
as a reference. You want your lift vector to point 90 degrees
away from his fuselage line. Be careful, though. Remember,
this is a three-dimensional problem, so you need to consider
the bandits bank attitude as well to see
his plane of turn. Rather than make this issue too difficult,
lets just level our wings with the bandits flight
path prior to beginning our pull. That should be good enough
for most situations.
There is no "right" value
for this angle. The purpose of the vertical move is to get
turning room in the vertical. The amount of turning room needed
is a function of the HnC fighters airspeed and G capability
at the pulldown point. The HnC pilot wants enough turning
room to be able to get his nose back on the bandit. He also
wants to have enough acceleration distance to be able to re-engage
the bandit with sufficient energy to continue the HnC attack
profile or allow a successful separation/disengagement. At
the same time, he does not want to needlessly extend the climb
do so allows the bandit to gain separation and energy. A perfectly
executed HnC vertical move is one that allows the HnC pilot
to reposition for his re-attack while forcing the bandit to
maintain a defensive turn.
You must always be aware of your energy
as you enter this pull up. WW2 fighters will deplete their
energy quicker in the pull up than a modern jet will. Because
of this, WW2 climb angles may be less steep than a jets.
This is not all bad since WW2 aircraft require less turning
room in their re-attacks. Conversely, because of a jets
greater speed (and resulting turn radius), it usually requires
a steeper angle to keep lateral spacing within desirable limits.
The HnC pilot wants the vertical separation to be greater
than the lateral.
Let me suggest a climb technique.
Ill do this with two entry situations in mind. The first
is the beam entry, and the second is the front quarter entry.
For the beam entry, I suggest
that you use a 45 60 degree climb angle if you are
flying a WW2 fighter
and a 60-90 degree angle if you
are flying a modern jet. Now, these are only approximates
and will vary with your energy level and bandit position at
the pull up. The point is that you will probably need a steeper
climb to get the needed vertical flight path in a jet
that you need to have at least 45 degrees to get the same
relative displacement in a prop fighter. The 60-degree max
for the WW2 fighter is a concession to the more rapid energy
depletion rate of a prop fighter.
How about the front quarter attack?
This one is relatively easy! When your energy level permits,
regardless of fighter type, pull up to about a 90-degree angle.
The bandits speed in the other direction should take
care of the lateral spacing that you need
what you want
now is the vertical turning room. Fine, you say! But what
if your energy level doesnt allow this? Then make your
climb similar to a pitchback, in other words, incline your
One note of caution. If you are forced
to use a pitchback type of inclined climbing turn, as a rule
do not turn into a bandit that is in a turn
you may not
be able to get the needed vertical and lateral room and even
worse, the bandit may be able to meet you head on. Instead,
turn to the bandits six (away from his turn direction).
Make a two circle type of re-attack. Accept the
extended time that this will take on the notion that caution
is often much more advisable than a no guts, no glory
From a top view, it
looks like this:
Now we are ready to begin the pull.
Your objective is to gain spacing as quickly as you can. If
you over-rotate and pull too hard you may stall your aircraft
or bleed energy too rapidly. So, your pull is not a max G
effort. Instead, smoothly increase backpressure to get an
energy sustaining nose rotation. As a rule, look for 3-5 Gs
for WW2 aircraft, and 5-7 Gs for modern aircraft. These
are again rough numbers based on average conditions
a bit with your specific aircraft to get best results.
Our last discussion item regarding
the pull up is the HnC pilots aircraft attitude relative
to the bandit. Lets use his lift vector as our frame
of reference. In the climb, the HnC pilot will want to aim
his lift vector in a specific direction based upon the flight
path of the bandit. In doing so, he will establish a pursuit
either lead, pure, or lag. Remember the general
lead is for increasing your closure, lag is for
increasing your separation.
The HnC pilot usually establishes
the initial direction of his lift vector as he is pulling
up. Once his climb angle is established, he can fine
tune his attitude based upon the bandits behavior.
Great so far
but how do we point
the lift vector? Or more to the point, how do we recognize
the lift vector? We remember that we can visualize our lift
vector as coming out of the top of our canopy. This is important
since the padlock and snap views both have cues that allow
us to recognize this direction. The forward snap view is easy
lift vector is always at the top of the monitor screen...in
fact, in most snap views, you can think of the top of the
monitor screen as the lift vector. In many padlocks, there
is a lift line that can be used (as well as cockpit structure)
to identify the top of the canopy area. Figure 21 shows a
padlock view from Flanker2
and Figure 22 is an external
view of the same shot. The Flanker has pulled up outside the
bandits turn and should roll right to place the lift
vector arrow over the bandit to begin the pull down.
When we think of lift vector orientation,
we often use the concept of the pirouette. The pirouette
is an unloaded aileron roll in which the pilot rolls to aim
his lift vector in a particular direction. The HnC pilot uses
the pirouette to position his lift vector in relation to where
he wants his flight path to be in the pull down. If this pull
down flight path is to be lead pursuit, then the HnC pilot
pirouettes to aim his lift vector in front of the bandit.
If the HnC pilot need to increase his lateral spacing, he
will point his lift vector either at the bandit (pure pursuit)
or behind the bandit (lag pursuit).
What comes next? Lets call
it the pulldown, or the return to the fight. In your climb, you do not want to bleed all of your speed
off. You will need speed to get your nose back down. Lets
start with a minimum of 150-200 mph for WW2 fighters and 350-400
KIAS for modern fighter types.
Well, that sounds easy enough in theory,
but what you want to know is how to do this in your sim. What
cues do you have available to help you? First, you must keep
a close eye on your energy level. This means airspeed
you should cross check your speed frequently. Sounds reasonable,
right? But, be careful
its not that easy! Many
people use snap views in their sim
and snap views do
not have any airspeed info. So, if this applies to your style
of flying, be sure to cycle back and forth between your snap
view and your forward view. Most padlocks include flight data
so airspeed cross-checking is not much of a problem.
Your view type is your next cue. Regardless
of what type of view you are using, your objective is to maintain
an awareness of the bandits flight path relative to
your own. What are you looking for? An indication that the
bandit is beginning to increase its separation from you. You
do this two ways.
First, watch the bandits fuselage
axis. Maintain your climb until you see the bandit flight
path begin to move away from you. Look at the bandits
fuselage and nose position. As you see his nose move away
from your flight path, you may consider the pull down, I say
consider because you may want to get a little
more separation in the climb. This is OK
thing is that you recognize that the bandit is pulling away
The second cue is more subtle
may also vary with the sim viewing display. In the first instance,
you can use bandit relative size as a cue
look for the
bandit size to begin to get smaller. In the second instance,
some sims include distance labels that you may use to see
that the bandit is beginning to move away from you.
To begin the pulldown, we want to
first orient our lift vector into a pursuit course relative
to the bandit. How do you know whether to use lead, pure,
or lag? Make this decision depending on your closure and position
on the bandit. If the bandit is pulling away at a noticeable
rate, then you may want to pull down using lead pursuit. On
the other hand, you may use pure or even lag pursuit if you
need additional spacing. One good example of this is if you
are in an overhead position on the bandit and
want to move more to his six oclock.
While still in the climb, unload and
pirouette your aircraft until you are looking at the bandit
out of the top of your canopy. Then, smoothly bring in the
backpressure to start your nose moving towards the bandit.
Make sure you have max power, and drop flaps if appropriate
(and it is almost always appropriate! Some aircraft
like the F-16 will configure automatically
for the WW2 types, flaps can really help out.).
Then pull your nose into your desired
you should now be back in a dive and heading
for another gun attack. Keep your power in, retract your flaps,
and start working on your gunnery aiming problem.
The BnZ Attacks As Seen from a Sims
Next, well take a look at how
these attacks can be visualized using the padlock and snap
views. The screenshots come from MS CFS, Aces High, and Janes
USAF. One note regarding Aces High
on line sims have
a strong following, and BnZ tactics are a favorite with their
pilots. These sims have one similarity
none of them include
a padlock view. Instead, snap views are used to provide the
pilot with a sense of three-dimensional SA. As we go through
the HnC maneuver step by step, Ill use snap views from
Aces High to supplement the views from the other sims. Please
note that I have drawn in the bandit on these snap views as
a matter of convenience. These bandits will be
drawn larger than they would normally be in actual play in
order to make the desired academic point more easily seen.
In addition, I used a Tu-22 as the
bandit in the USAF shots, again as a matter of convenience.
It was a lot easier to position the USAF F-16 against the
when I first tried using a fighter adversary, I
couldnt get the sim AI to cooperate with the positional
set ups I was looking for!!
As in Part Two, Ill describe
a WW2 and a modern jet HnC scenario.
The HnR Attack
Well begin with the WW2
using an MS CFS P-40 vs Ki-27 engagement and
supplemented with an Aces High Me-109G-10.
The first screenshot shows the P-40
pilot beginning his pull up after making a beam gun attack.
He will level his wings with the bandits plane of turn
and pull up on his present heading since the forward speed
of the Ki-27 will move the P-40s flight path behind
the bandits wingline.
The P-40 pilot smoothly rotates to
about 45 degrees of pitch angle above the plane of the bandits
turn and then checks his left rear snap view.
The P-40 pilot now unloads and climbs
while watching the bandit. He is looking for cues that the
bandit is beginning to pull away from him. Along with diminishing
relative size, the P-40 pilot is looking for the bandits
flight path (nose position) to begin to move behind his own
wingline. In this next figure, note the increasing angle between
the bandit and the P-40.
Seeing the Ki-27 moving away, the
P-40 pilot rolls inverted and then checks his rear view. The
roll is complete when the P-40 pilot orients his lift vector
across the turn circle relative to the bandit.
From this attitude, the P-40 pilot
pulls through to begin his re-attack. As he completes the
pull, he will fine-tune his heading to establish the desired
Now lets look at a HnC profile
using the snap views available in Aces High.
Ill draw in the bandit positions to simplify matters
(and because getting good, specific screenshots was a pain
in the rear end!!). Remember that, unlike a padlock view,
in a snap view, the lift vector always points up to the top
of your monitor screen.
One other thought before we get into
the action. In sims such as Aces High that do not offer either
a padlock or external view for use, you have two types of
views that you may use in your BFM. These are snap views and
pan views. Snap views are individual views looking out of
the cockpit in a specific direction
up, aft, left, etc.
Pan views are slewable (movable) views looking from the cockpit
to the outside. Both snap and pan views may be zoomable
depending on the sim.
Snap views have been around since
the earliest sims and are the easier of the two types to use.
Pan views are more difficult to control, requiring a higher
level of manual dexterity in using the keyboard and/or flight
stick hat switches. In either case, the pilot that has success
in using these views in a three-dimensional BFM situation
is as much an accomplished view manager as he is a good BFM
The point to keep in mind when using
snap or pan views is that, unlike padlock or external views
that automatically follow the bandit, these views require
you to manually switch or pan the view to follow the bandit.
In padlock or external, the sims AI is responsible for
centering the bandit in the field of view
in sims such
as Aces High, you must do this for yourself.
so much for philosophy!! Lets
get to it!
We begin with the bandit turning left
across the attacking Me-109s nose. The 109 pilot plans
a snapshot and a vertical reposition.
Once the pilot begins the pull up,
he must switch out of the forward view to keep the bandit
in sight. The pull up requires him to keep an idea of where
the bandit is (and is going) in his mind as well as having
a pitch (horizon) reference for basic aircraft control. Selecting
a side view (or panning sideways) is the answer.
Once the climb angle is established,
the Me-109 pilot must manage his view selection to keep the
bandit in sight. A slight roll may help keep the bandit centered
in the side snap view. One tip is to think of the wingtip
as a pointer
raise or lower the wingtip as a means of
keeping the bandit in the view. One thing I might mention
use the rear view in this situation
The bandit is not there! Why not?
Because it is moving off to the 109 pilots left aft
side. He needs an aft rear view to continue to watch the bandit.
Here it is:
The 109 pilot now looks for the same
pulldown cues as described before
diverging flight paths,
bandit getting smaller as its range opens. Seeing this, the
109 pilot prepares for his pulldown. To do this, he needs
to get his lift vector pointed across the circle in the direction
of the bandit. This can be a problem when using snap views.
This figure shows a pyramid-shaped
cone extending upwards from the climbing 109. This represents
a viewing area that is difficult to use while maneuvering.
It is NOT a blind area as such
your snap views include
a view straight up
but it is a view that I consider very
disorienting to use when maneuvering due to the lack of cues
that tell you where you are going!' Note in Figure 38,
that the pilot will be rotating the blind cone
towards the bandit as he rolls to put his lift vector on the
bandit for the pulldown.
The end result is that the 109 pilot
is going to have to use other views for the pulldown. Initially,
he uses his side view. He rolls to move the bandit towards
the top of the view (towards his lift vector) and then begins
to apply backstick pressure. This will bring his nose back
down and may be assisted through the use of flaps. The next
figure shows the nose returning to the horizon.
This transition from a climb to a
descending pursuit curve will be the most critical part of
the HnC when using the snap views. It helps if the pilot can
maintain a good sense of positional relationships in his mind.
This will allow him to roll and then pull his nose into a
general area with some expectation that the bandit will also
As soon as the 109 pilot has his nose
down near the horizon, he can change to a forward side view
to keep the bandit in sight.
Now, with the lift vector pointed
back towards the bandit (and with a view that keeps his sense
of orientation), the pilot can fine-tune his pulldown angle.
In the next two forward views, the
109 pilot maneuvers to set up his next gun attack.
what about you padlock
Lets go to that view type now with a jet scenario
F-16 maneuvering against a Tu-22. These shots from Janes USAF
include the lift line.
Speaking of the lift line, here are
a few words on its meaning and use. In many of our padlocks,
when we look at the target out of the top portions of the
canopy, we no longer have any cockpit structure in view. This
tends to disorient us since we lose track of where our nose
is. The lift line concept was developed to help solve this
problem. While the actual depictions vary from sim to sim,
the general idea is the same.
In USAF, an add-on file was built
that would add a white line on the top of the canopy, running
down the centerline of the canopy from front to rear. This
line has a series of arrows spaced along its length. The arrows
point towards your nose, and the number of arrow diagonal
marks are placed to tell you what part of the canopy you are
one arrow indicates the front portion
of the canopy, while the four arrow marks indicate you are
looking up through the rear top of the canopy. In the next
picture, you are looking down into the F-16 cockpit from directly
overhead. The location of the lift line corresponds to that
part of the canopy that the pilot will be looking up through.
Notice also the two side arrows located
approximately half way from the canopy rail to the main lift
line. These include the letters L and R
plus the arrowhead to indicate that you are looking out of
the side of the canopy, and not the top.
Since the placement of the arrow line
is along the top of the canopy, we can think of it as representing
the lift vector. When we pull backpressure, our aircraft flight
path will be towards what ever the line is superimposed over
the name lift line.
The lift line can be used for out-of-plane
maneuvering as well as in-plane. By rolling to place the lift
line away from the target, you can align your flight path
in lead, pure, or lag pursuit. This will be shown in the following
HnC maneuver. One last note on the USAF lift line
my screenshots, I will highlight the lift line since it is
difficult to see in some of the shots.
Lets begin with the F-16 at
the end of a beam pass on the Tu-22.
As his nose passes the targets
tail, the F-16 begins its pull into the vertical. The pilot
selects full afterburner and rotates the nose quickly to keep
his forward velocity to a minimum. In the following padlock
views, Ill circle the bandit, show his wingline, and
indicate his flight path for easy reference.
The F-16 pilot continues his pull
into a near-vertical attitude as he watches the flight path
of the target. He is looking for the target to begin moving
forward on his padlock side view
this will indicate that
the target is beginning to open the distance between the two
aircraft, thus giving the F-16 additional lateral turning
Now, at the top of his zoom, and with
the target beginning to pull away, the F-16 pilot rolls right
to aim his lift vector (lift line) at the target. As he reaches
this new inverted attitude, he takes another look at his vertical
and lateral spacing. Is there enough room to pull down for
"Dont think so
the Viper driver says to himself. Hes got a little too
much forward velocity
not enough lateral turning room.
If he pulls down from here, hell end up with a rushed
attack. He needs to buy himself some time
some more lateral
and he does this by rolling further right and
pulling his nose into lag on the target. This will allow the
target to move further away. The F-16 has plenty of vertical
turning room, so the pilot is not worried about making the
corner when going downhill. This lag reposition using the
lift line will result in him rolling out at the targets
six with sufficient spacing to make a controlled attack
he had not corrected his lift line, he may well have pulled
out too close to the target.
Now, the F-16 pilot quickly rolls
upright and plays the bottom of his pull out to move into
the targets six. He comes out of burner, double checks
his gun switches, and presses the attack.
And the inevitable result of a well
flown HnC reposition.
Well, folks, that just about wraps
up the series on BnZ tactics and considerations. Hope you
and the next time you see me stooging
around in Aces High
just remember this article
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